Wednesday, May 17, 2017


Are you interested in a legal career but don’t have the time or resources to go to law school? Then consider becoming a paralegal.
Also called legal assistants, paralegals perform many of the day-to-day activities once done exclusively by lawyers. They prepare common legal documents like contracts, wills and trusts. They interview witnesses and do legal research. They prepare briefs, motions and pleadings, and then file these with the appropriate court. They do all this under the direction of the licensed attorneys for whom they work.
Paralegals can be found in a variety of office settings. These include law firms, corporate legal departments, legal aid offices, and government agencies. The demand for this skill set remains strong in most parts of the country as law firms continue to hire paralegals as a way to cut overhead costs and streamline their operations.
Skills Required
  1. Communication
Effective communication is fundamental to law practice. Whether you are interviewing a new client, contacting an expert, taking the statement of a witness, scheduling a court reporter or discussing a deal with your supervising attorney, up to 80% of your day is spent communicating with others. As the lawyer’s right-hand, paralegals serve as a liaison between clients, experts, vendors, opposing counsel and other parties in a litigation or transaction. Therefore, the ability to communicate clearly and effectively is an essential paralegal skill.
  1.  Writing
Top-notch writing skills are essential to almost any paralegal position. Litigation paralegals draft correspondence, pleadings, discovery, motions, briefs, legal memorandums and other documents ranging from simple to complex. Transactional paralegals draft resolutions, agreements, contracts and related documents. Since writing is an integral paralegal function, paralegals who master the art of clear, concise and persuasive written communications will set themselves apart from their peers.
  1.  Research and Investigative Skills
Research is another core paralegal skill. In addition to mastering traditional legal research methods, paralegals must become proficient at Internet research and legal research databases such Westlaw and Lexis/Nexis. Paralegals must also learn to analyze case facts and properly cite legal authority. Solid investigative skills in civil, criminal and transactional contexts are also necessary in tracking down medical records, evidence, documents and witnesses.
  1.  Technology Skills
Technology skills are one of the most sought-after paralegal skills in today’s legal market. As technology infiltrates every aspect of law practice, paralegals must master a growing array of word processing, spreadsheet, telecommunications, database, presentation and legal research software. Paralegals are often charged with making technology purchases within their law firm or legal department. Legal technology has also given rise to new paralegal niches – litigation support and e-discovery. Paralegals who bring advanced technology skills to the table have a competitive advantage in the legal market.
  1.  Organization
Lawyers rely on paralegals to bring order to their cases and files in civil, criminal and transactional matters. Document-intensive litigation and corporate transactions generate vast amounts of documents and data. Therefore, the ability to sort, index, categorize, order, manipulate and organize this information is a fundamental paralegal skill. In addition to organizing physical documents, exhibits and evidence, paralegals must master technology applications and databases that assist in managing case-related data.
  1.  Multi-Tasking
Rarely are paralegals assigned to a single case, deal or task. In the real world, paralegals must juggle multiple tasks and simultaneously balance competing priorities. For example, a litigation paralegal may interview a witness, e-mail a client, train a co-worker on a new database and research a legal issue within the same one-hour block of time. The most successful paralegals are able to think flexibly, prioritize assignments and balance the demands of multiple supervisors and clients.
  1.  Teamwork
Teamwork is another fundamental paralegal skill. The delivery of legal services is sufficiently complex that a team with multiple skills is necessary to provide quality and cost-effective service. Moreover, since rules regarding the unauthorized practice of law require paralegals to work under the supervision of a lawyer, teamwork is integral to paralegal practice. Paralegals are part of a larger legal team within their organization that may include associates, partners, fellow paralegals, legal secretaries and others. Paralegals must also work collaboratively with outside parties including clients, opposing counsel, experts and vendors.
  1.  Attention to Detail
While lawyers are often focused on the big picture, the details fall to the paralegal. Paralegal tasks such as cite checking (verifying legal authority in briefs and memos), document review, exhibit management and title searches require painstaking attention to detail. Managing the logistical complexities of preparing for a trial or closing also require a focus on a multitude of details ranging from numbering exhibits and double-checking budgets to tracking court dates and filing deadlines.
Nature of Jobs
While lawyers assume ultimate responsibility for legal work, they often delegate many of their tasks to paralegals.
In fact, paralegals—also called legal assistants—are continuing to assume a growing range of tasks in legal offices and perform many of the same tasks as lawyers. Nevertheless, they are explicitly prohibited from carrying out duties considered to be the practice of law, such as setting legal fees, giving legal advice, and presenting cases in court.
One of a paralegal?s most important tasks is helping lawyers prepare for closings, hearings, trials, and corporate meetings. Paralegals might investigate the facts of cases and ensure that all relevant information is considered. They also identify appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials that are relevant to assigned cases. After they analyze and organize the information, paralegals may prepare written reports that attorneys use in determining how cases should be handled. If attorneys decide to file lawsuits on behalf of clients, paralegals may help prepare the legal arguments, draft pleadings and motions to be filed with the court, obtain affidavits, and assist attorneys during trials. Paralegals also organize and track files of all important case documents and make them available and easily accessible to attorneys.
In addition to this preparatory work, paralegals perform a number of other functions. For example, they help draft contracts, mortgages, and separation agreements. They also may assist in preparing tax returns, establishing trust funds, and planning estates. Some paralegals coordinate the activities of other law office employees and maintain financial office records.
Computer software packages and the Internet are used to search legal literature stored in computer databases and on CD-ROM. In litigation involving many supporting documents, paralegals usually use computer databases to retrieve, organize, and index various materials. Imaging software allows paralegals to scan documents directly into a database, while billing programs help them to track hours billed to clients. Computer software packages also are used to perform tax computations and explore the consequences of various tax strategies for clients.
Paralegals are found in all types of organizations, but most are employed by law firms, corporate legal departments, and various government offices. In these organizations, they can work in many different areas of the law, including litigation, personal injury, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, intellectual property, labor law, bankruptcy, immigration, family law, and real estate. As the law becomes more complex, paralegals become more specialized. Within specialties, functions are often broken down further. For example, paralegals specializing in labor law may concentrate exclusively on employee benefits. In small and medium-size law firms, duties are often more general.
The tasks of paralegals differ widely according to the type of organization for which they work. A corporate paralegal often assists attorneys with employee contracts, shareholder agreements, stock-option plans, and employee benefit plans. They also may help prepare and file annual financial reports, maintain corporate minutes? record resolutions, and prepare forms to secure loans for the corporation. Corporate paralegals often monitor and review government regulations to ensure that the corporation is aware of new requirements and is operating within the law. Increasingly, experienced corporate paralegals or paralegal managers are assuming additional supervisory responsibilities such as overseeing team projects.
The duties of paralegals who work in the public sector usually vary by agency. In general, litigation paralegals analyze legal material for internal use, maintain reference files, conduct research for attorneys, and collect and analyze evidence for agency hearings. They may prepare informative or explanatory material on laws, agency regulations, and agency policy for general use by the agency and the public. Paralegals employed in community legal-service projects help the poor, the aged, and others who are in need of legal assistance. They file forms, conduct research, prepare documents, and, when authorized by law, may represent clients at administrative hearings.
  • Familiarization with Computer and its Accessories.
  • Demonstration on Window O.S.
  • Demonstration Practice on MS Office.
  • Typing practice in English and vernacular language.
  • Visit to Various Courts & Offices.
  • Do Identification of plots in the Map.
  • Typing practice in various types of forms and various court papers.
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Training.
  • Cross Occupational Skills.
Eligibility & Admissions
10th Class Passed.
Job Prospects
In addition to new jobs created by employment growth, more job openings will arise as people leave the occupation. There will be demand for paralegals who specialize in areas such as real estate, bankruptcy, medical malpractice, and product liability. Community legal service programs, which provide assistance to the poor, elderly, minorities, and middle-income families, will employ additional paralegals to minimize expenses and serve the most people. Job opportunities also are expected in Federal, State, and local government agencies, consumer organizations, and the courts. However, this occupation attracts many applicants, creating competition for jobs. Experienced, formally trained paralegals should have the best job prospects.
To a limited extent, paralegal jobs are affected by the business cycle. During recessions, demand declines for some discretionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Corporations are less inclined to initiate certain types of litigation when falling sales and profits lead to fiscal belt tightening. As a result, full-time paralegals employed in offices adversely affected by a recession may be laid off or have their work hours reduced. However, during recessions, corporations and individuals are more likely to face problems that require legal assistance, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces. Paralegals, who provide many of the same legal services as lawyers at a lower cost, tend to fare relatively better in difficult economic conditions.
Paralegals and legal assistants held about 238,000 jobs in 2006. Private law firms employed 7 out of 10 paralegals and legal assistants; most of the remainder worked for corporate legal departments and various levels of government. Within the Federal Government, the U.S. Department of Justice is the largest employer, followed by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. A small number of paralegals own their own businesses and work as freelance legal assistants, contracting their services to attorneys or corporate legal departments.

ITI in Tractor Mechanic

Tractor repairs train to modify, repair or update ranch machinery and equipment. Key to a tractor repair preparing educational module is the investigating and mechanical insight that expert repairers must show when performing duties.
Skills Required
  1. Repairing – Repairing machines or frameworks utilizing the required apparatuses.
  2. Gear Maintenance – Performing routine upkeep on hardware and deciding when and what sort of upkeep is required.
  3. Investigating – Determining reasons for working blunders and choosing what to do about it.
  4. Quality Control Analysis – Conducting tests and assessments of items, administrations, alternately methods to assess quality or execution
  5. Discriminating Thinking – Using rationale and thinking to recognize the qualities and shortcomings of option arrangements, conclusions or ways to deal with issues
  6. Operation Monitoring – Watching gages, dials, or different markers to verify a machine is working appropriately.
  7. Operation and Control – Controlling operations of gear or frameworks.
  8. Gear Selection – Determining the sort of apparatuses and hardware expected to do work
  9. Complex Problem Solving – Identifying complex issues and checking on related data to create and assess choices and execute arrangements.
  10. Dynamic Listening – Giving full consideration regarding what other individuals are stating, taking time to comprehend the focuses being made, making inquiries as fitting, and not hindering at improper times.
  11. Talking – Talking to others to pass on data successfully.
  12. Judgment and Decision Making – Considering the relative expenses and advantages of potential activities to pick the most suitable one.
  13. Time Management – Managing one’s own particular time and the time of others.
  14. Dynamic Learning – Understanding the ramifications of new data for both present and future issue -understanding and choice making.
  15. Composing – Communicating successfully in composing as fitting for the needs of the gathering of people.
  16. Observing – Monitoring/Assessing execution of yourself, different people, or associations to make changes or make remedial move.
  17. Social Perceptiveness – Being mindful of others’ responses and comprehension why they respond as they do.
  18. Perusing Comprehension – Understanding composed sentences and passages in work related reports.
  19. Administration Orientation – Actively searching for approaches to help individuals
  20. Coordination – Adjusting activities in connection to others’ activities.
  21. Science – Using math to take care of issues.
  22. Influence – Persuading others to alter their opinions or conduct.
  23. Learning Strategies – Selecting and utilizing preparing/instructional systems and systems fitting for the circumstance when learning or showing new things.
  24. Administration of Personnel Resources – Motivating, creating, and coordinating individuals as they work, distinguishing the most ideally equipped individuals for the employment.
  25. Frameworks Analysis – Determining how a framework ought to function and how changes in conditions, operations, and the earth will influence results.
Nature of Job
  1. Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment – Servicing, repairing, changing, also, testing machines, gadgets, moving parts, and hardware that work fundamentally on the premise of mechanical (not electronic) standards.
  2. Working Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment – Running, moving, exploring, or driving vehicles or automated hardware, for example, forklifts, traveler, vehicles, airplane, or water make.
  3. Taking care of and Moving Objects – Using hands and arms in taking care of, introducing, situating and moving materials, and controlling things.
  4. Settling on Decisions and Solving Problems – Analyzing data and assessing results to pick the best arrangement and tackle issues.
  5. Investigating Equipment, Structures, or Material – Inspecting gear, structures,on the other hand materials to recognize the reason for slips or different issues or deformities.
  6. Overhauling and Using Relevant Knowledge – Keeping progressive actually and applying new information to your occupation.
  7. Performing General Physical Activities – Performing physical exercises that require impressive utilization of your arms and legs and moving your entire body, for example, climbing, lifting, adjusting, strolling, stooping, and treatment of materials.
  8. Speaking with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates – Providing data to administrators, colleagues, and subordinates by phone, in composed structure, email, or in individual.
  9. Getting Information – Observing, accepting, and generally acquiring data from every single pertinent source.
  10. Arranging, Planning, and Prioritizing Work – Developing particular objectives and  plans to organize, compose, and achieve your work.
  11. Controlling Machines and Processes – Using either control instruments or direct physical movement to work machines or techniques (excluding PCs or vehicles).
  12. Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment – Servicing, repairing, aligning, regulating,fine-tuning, or testing machines, gadgets, and hardware that work principally on the premise of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) standards.
  13. Assessing the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information -Estimating sizes, separations, and amounts; or deciding time, costs, assets, or materials expected to perform a work movement.
  14. Distinguishing Objects, Actions, and Events – Identifying data by arranging, assessing, perceiving contrasts or likenesses, and identifying changes in circumstances or occasions.
  15. Thinking Creatively – Developing, outlining, or making new applications, thoughts, connections, frameworks, or items, including masterful commitments.
  16. Corresponding with Persons Outside Organization – Communicating with individuals outside the association, speaking to the association to clients, general society, government, and other outer sources. This data can be traded in individual, in composing, or by phone or email.
  17. Screen Processes, Materials, or Surroundings – Monitoring and inspecting data from materials, occasions, or the earth, to recognize or survey issues.
  18. Assessing Information to Determine Compliance with Standards – Using important data and individual judgment to figure out if occasions or methodologies agree to laws, regulations, or benchmarks.
  19. Collaborating With Computers – Using PCs and PC frameworks (counting equipment and programming) to program, compose programming, set up capacities, enter information, or methodology data.
  20. Breaking down Data or Information – Identifying the hidden standards, reasons, or truths of data  by separating data or information into particular parts.
  21. Recording/Recording Information – Entering, translating, recording, putting away, alternately keeping up data in composed or electronic/attractive structure.
  22. Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People – Assessing the worth, significance, or nature of  things or individuals.
  23. Creating and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships – Developing useful and helpful working associations with others, and keeping up them over the long haul.
  24. Translating the Meaning of Information for Others – Translating or clarifying what data implies and how it can be utilized.
  25. Translating the Meaning of Information for Others – Translating or clarifying what data implies and how it can be utilized.
  26. Preparing and Teaching Others – Identifying the instructive needs of others, creating formal instructive or preparing projects or classes, and educating or training others.
  27. Offering or Influencing Others – Convincing others to purchase stock/products or to generally alter their opinions or activities
  28. Give Consultation and Advice to Others – Providing direction and master exhortation to administration or different gatherings on specialized, frameworks , or procedure related subjects.
  29. Booking Work and Activities – Scheduling occasions, projects, and exercises, as well as the work of others.
  30. Honing and Developing Others – Identifying the formative needs of others and honing, tutoring, or generally helping other people to enhance their learning or aptitudes.
Induction Training
  1. Use of Fitter’s hand tools care and maintenance of tools , filing practice.
  2. Filling –Filling to line marking off –use of center punch, dividers , calipers, steel rule etc. Filling true and square.
  3. Chipping , grinding of chisels hacksawing.
  4. Simple drilling . Use of taps and dies. Use of hand reamers.
  5. Introduction to centre lathe , setting up work between centers. Use of side cutting tools. Parallel turning and stipped turning.
  6. Joining of metals by soft soldering. Simple marking out of metals by gas and electric welding.
  7. Simple sheet metal work cutting, bending & simple fold joints.
  8. Pipe Bending and appealing, fitting of nipples & unions by soldering, brazing by  using blow lamp.
  9. General cleaning, oiling and greasing of tractors. Checking and tightening of bolts and nuts. Function of different parts of the tractor.
  10. Checking engines auxiliaries, fuel , oil and cooling system, practice in starting, running and stepping engine.
  11. Removing wheels from tractors; checking tyres for wear and tubes for leaks. Repairing puncture.
  12. Practice on refitting tyres and tubes and wheels and inflating the correct  pressure.
Eligibility & Admission
  • Should Have Passed 8th Class Examination under 10 + 2. System of Education or Its Equivalent.
  • Desirable: Passed 10th Class Examination Under 10 + 2 Systems of Education with Science (With Physics & Chemistry as one of the subject or its equivalent).
The major job providers are farm equipment dealers.

Mechanic Repair & Maintenance of Heavy Vehicles is a heavy vehicle maintenance vocational trade. The trade duration is one year with two semesters of six months each. Candidates are told during trade course about different aspects of heavy vehicles along with other details such repairing gas and diesel commercial trucks and vans; work on the mechanical parts of a truck, such as the engine, wheels, accelerator and brakes; discover problems and issues with different vehicles. This trade is also job offering including self-employment like others in different heavy vehicle companies. There are many ITIs providing this course in the country due to its good demand in motor industry.
Skills Required
  • Students should have the ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules such as patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations as they are necessary while working.
  • They also possess the handling and moving objects skills such as using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning and moving materials and manipulating things.
  • They also have good communication skills as they have to communicate with supervisors, peers, or subordinates. It provides information to supervisors, co-workers and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail or in person.
1st Sem
  • Familiarization with institute, Importance of the trade Machinery used in Trade. Types of work done by the students in the Institute-shop floor of the Institute.
  • Description of safety equipment their use safety rules to be observed in an Automobiles repair shop. Accident & their causes-up keep of fire extinguishers.
  • General servicing of vehicles washing, cleaning, oiling, greasing and lubrication of vehicle.
  • Inspection of under carriage of vehicle.
  • Removing wheels from vehicle, dismantling tyres and tubes checking puncture assembling inflating to correct pressure.
  • Inspection the frame checking alignment of frame servicing of spring replacing new bushes in shackle pins changing hushes in shock absorbers.
  • Removing kingpins and bushes replacing new bushes & plus after removing bushes & rings, lubrication of king pin bushes in the front, independent suspension system.
  • Inspect and adjust steering linkages, after replacement of worn parts alignment of steering wheels with respect to front wheel, check and correct toe-in.
  • Inspect and overhaul steering boxes adjusting steering gear backlash, and end play check and adjust toe-in, camber angles checking kingpin angle & caster angle with special gauges.
  • Adjusting brake pedal play dismantling wheel break assembly cleaning and inspecting adjusting brake shoes for proper clearances, bleeding hydraulic brakes & Disk brakes.
  • Removing master cylinder, dismantling cleaning and inspection of parts assembling and testing bleeding the braking system after cleaning the pipelines.
  • Dismantling wheel brake assembly removing old lining & fitting new lining on the brake shoe removing, cleaning of brake drums inspecting wheel cylinders & brake drums-fitting new cups and brake hosepipes, reassembling adjusting wheel bearing ad testing adjusting all 4 wheel brakes.
  • Bleeding of vacuum assisted hydraulic brakes removing & refitting of vacuum boosters-repairs to pipelines-adjusting the brakes in vacuum assisted hydraulic brakes.
  • Adjusting Air brake srepair to tank unit, air compressor, wheel brake adjuster locating air leaks in the brake lines and rectifying – general maintenance and care.
  • Trouble tracing in braking system of a heavy vehicle adjusting brakes and balancing all four wheel brakes, precautions to be observed while testing brakes points to be remember while preparing the vehicle for brake certificate.
  • Adjusting clutch pedal play-removing gearbox and clutch assembly from Heavy Vehicle. Dismantling clutch assembly, cleaning inspecting parts.
  • Removing & fitting of new pilot bearing, removing & fitting of ring gear in fly wheel relining a clutch plate checking condition of flywheel and pressure plate surface for reconditioning.
  • Assembling of pressure plate adjusting the fingers checking run out of fly wheel and aligning clutch assembly with flywheel.
  • Dismantling cleaning and assembling of gearshift mechanism changing oil in gear box studying gear ratios in the gear box.
  • Dismantling a synchromesh gear box, cleaning, inspecting parts replacing worn out defective parts assembling & testing for correct performance identifying noises from gear boxes and rectifying.
  • Removing rear brake drums and adjusting the wheel bearings in full floating rear axles & semi floating axles, replacing oil seals in rear axles.
  • Project Work.
2nd Sem
  • Removing rear axle assembly from vehicle, dismantling, cleaning, inspecting parts for wear and damage, cutting packings/gaskets removing tail pinion and bearings cleaning and inspection of oilseals and bearings.
  • Checking tooth contact in crown land pinion and adjusting back-lash-assembling the rear axle assembly on vehicles and testing.
  • Trouble shooting in the transmission system of vehicle, detecting noises from clutch, gear box, universal joints and rear axle assembly.
  • Dismantling an unserviceable engine, cleaning of parts in the engine, measuring of cylinder bore-crank pins main journals pistons studying valve-operating mechanism.
  • Checking compression pressure & vacuum in a running engine of heavy vehicle dismantling the cylinder.
  • Removing pistons and connecting rods from engine, dismantling, cleaning, inspecting, checking clearances installing rings and pistons pins.
  • Removing connecting rod assembly, cleaning & checking bearing clearances, replacing bearing shells, setting correct clearances.
  • Assembling crankshaft, main bearings, connecting rods and piston assembly in the engine, fitting cylinder head and starting the engine and tuning up engine for smooth slow speed running with the help of using torque wrench, at proper torque & sequence.
  • Checking cooling system for overheating cleaning radiators, dismantling, cleaning, assembling and testing water pump, reverse flushing the system and adjusting the fan belt tension.
  • Studying the lubrication oil flow system in engine, overhauling oil filters; oil pump and setting the pressure release valve for correct oil pressure maintenance and repairs in the lubrication system in engine.
  • Practice in joining wires and soldering forming simple electrical circuits measuring of current, voltage & resistance cleaning and topping up of a lead acid battery testing battery with hydrometer-cell tester, connecting battery to charger.
  • Studying different electrical circuits in a heavy vehicle checking loose open and short circuits.
  • Removing dynamo alternators from vehicle, dismantling cleaning, checking for defects, assembling and testing for motoring action of dynamo & fitting to vehicles.
  • Removing starter motor from vehicle and overhauling the starter motor testing of starter motor.
  • Practice on unserviceable diesel engine-removing jammed nuts, broken studs and reconditioning damaged threaded holes-removing cylinder head connecting rods, and pistons cleaning, inspecting and refitting them.
  • Practice in starting & stopping of vehicle engines, general maintenance of engines-checking oil, fuel, water levels and accessories of diesel engines. Working of each components used in CNG engine.
  • Bleeding fuel lines for air locks repairing fuel leaks in the pipelines and unions cleaning of oil and air filters in diesel engines.
  • Cleaning and servicing of primary fuel filters and pressure stage filters, removing feed pump dismantling cleaning, reassembling, refitting and testing the feed pump.
  • Dismantling an unserviceable fuel injection pump, cleaning inspecting, studying parts and reassembling.
  • Testing injectors for missing on the vehicle Removing dismantling, cleaning, inspecting replacing defective parts reassembling the injectors and testing them.
  • Demonstrating retrofitting of vehicles CNG & LPG system Euro II, III, IV.
Eligibility & Admissions
Passed Class 10th Exam under 10+2 system of Education or its equivalent.
Job Prospects
  • Candidates who have good academic record can go for further higher Diploma/Degree courses as it enhances their overall qualification.
  • They can have jobs in shipping and trucking industries on various designations from helping to managing.
  • They can also run/open their own heavy vehicle workshop as self-employment.

Air-conditioning control the temperature, moistness, and the aggregate air quality in private, business, mechanical, and different structures. By giving an atmosphere controlled environment, refrigeration frameworks make it conceivable to store and transport sustenance, pharmaceutical, and other perishable things. Cooling, and refrigeration mechanics and installers—additionally called professionals introduce, keep up, and repair such systems.
Cooling, and refrigeration frameworks comprise of numerous mechanical, electrical, and electronic segments, for example, engines, compressors, pumps, fans, conduits, pipes, indoor regulators, and switches. Experts are regularly needed to offer administration contracts to their customers. Administration contracts accommodate normal upkeep of the warming and cooling frameworks.
Refrigeration mechanics introduce, administration, and repair modern and business refrigerating frameworks and a mixed bag of refrigeration hardware. They take after diagrams, outline determinations, and producers’ guidelines to introduce engines, compressors, consolidating units, evaporators, channeling, and different parts. They associate this gear to the ventilation work, refrigerant lines, and electrical force source. In the wake of making the associations, cooler mechanics accuse the arrangement of refrigerant, check it for legitimate operation and breaks, and system control frameworks.
At the point when cooling and refrigeration specialists administration gear, they must utilize consideration to save, recoup, and reuse the refrigerants utilized as a part of ventilating and refrigeration frameworks. The arrival of these refrigerants can be hurtful to the earth. Specialists ration the refrigerant by verifying that there are no breaks in the framework; they recoup it by venting the refrigerant into legitimate barrels; they reuse it for reuse with extraordinary channel dryers; or they guarantee that the refrigerant is appropriately discarded.
Ventilating, and refrigeration mechanics and installers are capable at utilizing a mixture of instruments to work with refrigerant lines and air channels, including sledges, wrenches, metal cuts, electric drills, channel cutters and binges, estimation gages, and acetylene lights. They utilize voltmeters, thermometers, weight gages, manometers, and other testing gadgets to check wind stream, refrigerant weight, electrical circuits, burners, and different segments.
Nature of Job
Specialists may work outside in cool or hot climate, or in structures that are uncomfortable in light of the fact that the ventilating or warming gear is broken. Likewise, specialists may work in ungainly or cramped positions, and here and there they are obliged to work in high places. Perils incorporate electrical stun, blazes, muscle strains, and different wounds from taking care of substantial equipment.
  • General Engg. Training.
  • Servicing Domestic ref. Appliance.
  • Servicing Semi-commercial Ref. Appliance.
  • Servicing Cold-storage-small Capacity.
  • Servicing Air Conditioning Plant Small Capacity.
  • Repair & Maintenance Domestic & Semi Commercial.
  • Appliance.
Eligibility & Admission
Pass in 10th class examination under 10+2 system of education with Science and Mathematics or its equivalent.
Job Prospects
Occupation prospects for air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers are relied upon to be incredible, especially for the individuals who have finished preparing from a certify specialized school or a formal apprenticeship.
Cooling, and refrigeration mechanics and installers work in homes, retail foundations, clinics, office structures, and manufacturing plants anyplace there is atmosphere control gear that needs to be introduced, repaired, or adjusted. They may be alloted to particular occupation locales toward the start of every day or may be dispatched to a mixture of areas on the off chance that they are making administration calls.
Some work for refrigeration and cooling administration and repair shops, schools, and stores that offer warming and air-conditioning systems.
ITI in Mechanic of Radio and TV

Radio and TV mechanics follow defects and repair radios and TV sets which may be flawed for different reasons, for instance parts that have exhausted or awful associations as a consequence of warmth or soddenness.
They discover the wellspring of the issue by checking tubes, watching the photo and sound, and searching for broken associations. They utilize wiring outlines and extraordinary testing gear to discover and fix complex issues. They may set up, introduce and modify TV radio wires and collectors and teach clients on the correct utilization of this gear.
Radio and TV mechanics likewise introduce and repair parts in stereo frameworks, tape machines, auto radios and open location frameworks. They may make basic conformity to apparatuses in clients’ homes. A large portion of the work is done inside in a workshop, yet these mechanics are habitually anticipated that would go to customers’ homes.
Skills Required
A radio and television mechanic should:
  • be at least 16 years old;
  • enjoy working with his hands;
  • have mechanical ability;
  • have a thorough knowledge of electronics;
  • work well without supervision;
  • get along well with others;
  • be bilingual;
  • have hand and finger dexterity;
  • have an eye for detail;
  • have good colour vision and hearing.
Nature Of Job
Radio and TV mechanics additionally introduce and repair parts in stereo frameworks, tape machines, auto radios and open location frameworks. They may make basic acclimations to machines in clients’ homes.
The greater part of the work is done inside in a workshop, yet these mechanics are every now and again anticipated that would go to customers’ homes.
Job Prospects
Employment of radio mechanics is expected to experience little to no change from 2008 to 2018 (1). Technological changes and increased wireless applications will create some job growth.
Job prospects should be good especially for radio mechanics with extensive experience. Some job openings will stem from the need to replace radio mechanics that leave the occupation.
  • Television and radio manufacturers.
  • Radio and television repair workshops.
  • Stores that sell radios, television sets and other electronic sound equipment.
  • Government undertakings.
  • Self-employment, with enough experience can practise this trade on a private basis or start own business.

Mechanic (Motor Vehicle) is a motor vehicle mechanical vocational trade. The duration of trade is two years with four semesters of six months each. In this trade students are taught about skills like servicing, repairing and major overhauling of motor vehicle like Scooter/ Motor Cycle, Cars, Trucks and Buses; maintain all types of vehicles by work of suspensions, transmission, brakes, steering work, basic electrical and electronic work; fault diagnosis in petrol/diesel engines including MPFI engine, engine fitted with turbocharger, engine scanning, car A/C system and different relay operations. Trade is very good from job point of view as it opens many career fields for them at various places.
Skills Required
  • Students should possess skills like knowledge of motor vehicle technology; strong practical skills and good problem-solving skills to find faults.
  • They should also possess the ability to work quickly and pay attention to detail; good communication and customer service skills; the ability to follow written and spoken instructions.
  • Candidates also possess a reasonable level of fitness; an up-to-date knowledge of vehicle developments, especially new engine types and electronics.
1st Sem
  • Familiarisation with institute, Job opportunities in the automobile sector, Machinery used in Trade. Types of work done by the students in the shop floor.
  • Practical related to Safety and Health, Importance of maintenance and cleanliness of Workshop.
  • Practice using all marking aids, like steel rule with spring calipers, dividers, scriber, punches, Chisel etc.,
  • Measuring practice on Cam height, Camshaft Journal dia, crankshaft journal dia, Valve stem dia, piston diameter, and piston pin dia with outside Micrometers.
  • Practice on General cleaning, checking and use of nut, bolts, & studs etc.,
  • Practice on Marking and Drilling clear and Blind Holes, Sharpening of Twist Drills Safety precautions to be observed while using a drilling machine.
  • Practice on making Rectangular Tray. Pipe bending, Fitting nipples unions in pipes. Soldering and Brazing of Pipes.
  • Practice in joining wires using soldering Iron, Construction of simple electrical circuits, Measuring of current, voltage and resistance using digital multimeter, practice continuity test for fuses, jumper wires, fusible links, circuit breakers.
  • Diagnose series, parallel, series parallel circuits using Ohm’s law, Check electrical circuit with a test lamp, perform voltage drop test in circuits using multimeter, measure current flow using multimeter /ammeter, use of service manual wiring diagram for troubleshooting.
  • Cleaning and topping up of a lead Acid battery, Testing battery with hydrometer, Connecting battery to a charger for battery charging, Inspecting & testing a battery after charging, Measure and Diagnose the cause(s) of excessive Key-off battery drain (parasitic draw) and do corrective action.
  • Identify and test power and signal connectors for continuity, Identify and test different type of Diodes, NPN & PNP Transistors for its functionality.
  • Practice to make straight beads and Butt, Lap & T joints Manual Metal Arc Welding.
  • Practice on Liquid penetrates testing method and Magnetic particle testing method.
  • Identification of different type of Vehicle. Demonstration of vehicle specification data; Identification of vehicle information Number (VIN).
2nd Sem
  • Identification of parts in a diesel engine of LMV/ HMV Practice on starting and stopping of diesel engines.
  • Overhauling of cylinder head assembly, Use of service manual for clearance and other parameters, Practice on removing rocker arm assembly manifolds.
  • Overhauling of crankshaft, Use of service manual for clearance and other parameters.
  • Checking of flywheel and mounting flanges, spigot, bearing. Check vibration damper for defects, Practice on removing cam shaft from engine block, Check for bend & twist of camshaft.
  • Cleaning and Checking of cylinder blocks Surface for any crack, flatness, Measure cylinder bore for taper & ovality, clean oil gallery passage and oil pipeline, Bore.
  • Reassemble all parts of engine in correct Sequence and torque all bolts and nuts as per workshop manual of the engine.
  • Practice on Checking &Top up coolant, Draining and refilling coolant, Checking / replacing a coolant hose, Testing cooling system pressure, Practice on Removing & replacing radiator/ thermostat.
  • Practice on Dismantling air compressor and exhauster and cleaning all parts – measuring wear in the cylinder, reassembling all parts and fitting them in the engine.
  • Practice on removing & Cleaning fuel tanks, checking leaks in the fuel lines, soldering & repairing pipe lines and Unions, brazing nipples to high pressure line studying the fuel feed system in diesel engines, draining of water separators.
  • Practice on Start engine adjust idling speed and damping device in pneumatic governor and venture control unit checking Performance of engine with off load adjusting timings.
  • Monitoring emissions procedures by use of Engine gas analyser or Diesel smoke meter.
  • Practice on removing alternator from vehicle dismantling, cleaning checking for defects, assembling and testing for motoring action of alternator & fitting to vehicles.
  • Practice on troubleshooting in LMV/HMV for Engine Not starting –Mechanical & Electrical causes, High fuel consumption, Engine overheating, Low Power Generation, Excessive oil consumption, Low/High Engine Oil Pressure, Engine Noise.
3rd Sem
  • Identification of different major components of Heavy vehicle and their function & placement study of different make lorry/bus/tractor in Institute with different dealers or organizations.
  • Practice on adjusting clutch pedal play removing gearbox and clutch assembly from Light & Heavy Vehicle. Dismantling clutch assembly, cleaning inspecting parts.
  • Practice on Removing open type propeller shaft from vehicle, Practice on removing universal joints, cleaning replacing worn out parts, re-assembling & refitting to vehicle.
  • Identification of Automatic transmission components Checking automatic transmission fluid, Changing transmission fluid & filter.
  • Following practical to be Practiced On Light & Heavy Vehicle. Practice on removing the drop arm, Check and adjust the turning angle, align the drop arm and steering wheel with the front wheel.
  • Following practical to be Practiced On Light & Heavy Vehicle Practice on visual Inspection of chassis frame for crack, bent and twists.
  • Practice on removing wheels from light & Heavy vehicle, dismantling tyres and tubes checking puncture.
  • Practice on Adjusting brake pedal play, Overhauling and inspection of tandem master cylinder assembly, Overhauling and inspection of front and rear brake assembly, overhauling and inspection of wheel cylinder assembly.
  • Trouble shooting Practice with Heavy vehicle for Engine Not starting – Mechanical & Electrical causes, High fuel consumption, Engine overheating, Low Power Generation, Excessive oil consumption, Low/High Engine Oil Pressure, Engine Noise.
4th Sem
  • Identification of petrol Engine components. Practice on starting and stopping of petrol engines. Observe and report the reading of Tachometer, Odometer, temp and Fuel gauge under ideal and on load condition.
  • Simple repairs in fuel feed system – overhauling of fuel pump, carburetors, fuel Filters and air cleaners. Repair to a car carburetors – adjusting float level and slow speed adjustments.
  • Practice on Cleaning fuel tank, checking for leaks in Fuel tank. Identification of various components of MPFI system. Testing of MPFI components and replacement if necessary. Check delivery from fuel Pump. Replacing a fuel filter.
  • Identification of Electronic control Unit. Set up for testing, Testing of Electronic Control Circuit.
  • Diagnosis- Possible causes and remedy for Engine cranks, but will not or hard to start, Poor fuel economy or engine performance.
  • Checking a charging system for the cause of undercharge, No charge, and over charge conditions. Removing & replacing an alternator, Inspection of rotor for ground, open circuit – field coil resistance, slip ring surface, Fan, bearing.
  • Removing starter motor from vehicle, and Performance test for pull-in test, Hold-in test, pinion (plunger) return test, No-load performance test.
  • Trace the light circuit – test bulbs, align head lamps, Aiming headlights. Changing a headlight bulb, Checking of a head light switch and to replace if faulty.
  • Identification of Air conditioning components, Performance test on A/c unit, Checking Charged state of refrigerant, Inspecting & adjusting an engine drive belt, Replacing an engine drive belt.
  • Trouble shooting and remedy for Horn- No horn operation, poor sound quality, horn sounds continuously and to replace the horn if faulty.
  • Driving Practice. Practice in straight driving on wide roads. Driving through lanes and curves. Practice in reversing. Practice overtaking another vehicle. Practice in driving through sand and wet surfaces. Practice in parking and Diagonal parking.
  • Project Work.
Eligibility & Admissions
  • Passed 10th class examination under 10+2 system of education with Science as one of the subject or its equivalent.
  • Performa for admission may be obtained from the respective State Directorate dealing with Craftsmen Training Scheme or from the Principals of the concerned Industrial Training Institutes/ centers conducting training programme under Craftsmen Training Scheme.
Job Prospects
  • Over the five years to November 2018, the number of job openings for Motor Mechanics is expected to be above average (between 25,001 and 50,000). Job openings can arise from employment growth and people leaving the occupation. Further information about job openings and projected employment growth is available on the Help page.
  • Employment for this occupation fell slightly in the past five years and in the long-term (ten years). Looking forward, employment for Motor Mechanics to November 2018 is expected to remain relatively steady.
  • This is a very large occupation (92,200 in November 2013) suggesting that opportunities should be available in most regions.
  • Motor Mechanics have a very high proportion of full-time jobs (94.8 per cent). For Motor Mechanics working full-time, average weekly hours are 41.7 (compared to 41.1 for all occupations) and earnings are below average – in the fourth decile. Unemployment for Motor Mechanics is below average.
  • The most common level of educational attainment is Certificate III/IV (65.1 per cent).
  • Motor Mechanics are mainly employed in Other Services, Retail Trade and Manufacturing.
Can be work as a Mechanic in reputed workshop/Service Centre, Technician in various Automobile Manufacturers, Automobile Auxiliary units and Government Transport corporations.Work as a Driver.There is a lot of demand for machinist in major industries like Ashok Leyland, TVS Motor Co., Carborundum Universal and also various small-scale industries at different industrial estates.
Self  Employment Opportunities
  • Starting own workshop/Service Station.
  • Tyre, Tube repair shop.
  • Electrical and Battery repair shop.